In the realm of digital forensics and incident response, the Windows Registry is a goldmine of information. It is a hierarchical database that stores low-level settings for the Microsoft Windows operating system and its installed applications. Among its countless keys, one stands out as a potential tool for identifying malicious processes: HKLM\System\CurrentControlSet\Services\bam\State\UserSettings\.

This article explores the intriguing world of the Windows Registry, with a specific focus on using the Background Activity Moderator (BAM) key for malware detection.

The Windows Registry: An Overview

Before delving into specifics, it’s essential to understand the basics of the Windows Registry. Think of it as the DNA of your Windows operating system – a vast, complex structure that tells the system how to behave.

The Registry is organized into a hierarchy of keys and subkeys, with each storing particular types of data. For example, settings related to your installed software might be found in HKEY_CURRENT_USER\Software, while system-wide settings are typically found under HKEY_LOCAL_MACHINE\System.

Unpacking the BAM Key

The Background Activity Moderator (BAM) is a power-saving feature in Windows that controls resource usage of background applications. It was introduced in Windows 8 and has since been improved in subsequent versions of the operating system.

The full registry key path we’re examining is: HKEY_LOCAL_MACHINE\System\CurrentControlSet\Services\bam\State\UserSettings\. This specific key contains a list of executable files (programs) that have been run on the system. Each entry (a subkey) is named after the corresponding executable’s security identifier (SID), and the data for each entry includes information about the last run time of the program and its file path.

Each BAM entry is stored under the user SID in the registry value [REG_BINARY]. The name of the entry is set to the executable’s path, and its data is set to a binary structure with a FILETIME timestamp, representing the last execution time of the executable​1​.

For instance, a BAM entry might look like this:

  1. Value Name: \Device\HarddiskVolume1\Program Files\Example\example.exe
  2. Value Type: REG_BINARY
  3. Value Data: (A binary string representing the FILETIME timestamp)

The BAM Key as a Malware Detection Tool

Given the information it stores, the BAM key can be a valuable tool in identifying potentially malicious processes. Here are several strategies for leveraging this key for malware detection:

  1. Identify Unusual or Unexpected Processes: An initial approach is to scrutinize the list of executables that have been run on the system. Unusual or unexpected processes may warrant further investigation.
  2. Check for Known Malware: If you’re aware of a specific piece of malware’s name or file path, you can scan the registry key to see if that process has been executed on the system.
  3. Analyze Timestamps: The BAM key records the last run time of each program. A suspicious process running at an unusual time, such as when the system should be idle or off, could indicate malicious activity.
  4. Inspect the File Paths: The BAM key also stores the file path for each executable. Processes running from unusual locations, such as temporary folders or a user’s home directory, could potentially be malicious.
  5. Correlation with Other Forensic Data: You can correlate the BAM key data with other system logs or forensic data to gain a more comprehensive understanding of the system’s activities.

Analyzing BAM Key Data

Analyzing the data from the BAM key can provide valuable insights during a digital forensics investigation. Several software tools are available to assist in this process, such as ArtiFast Windows.

ArtiFast Windows can process the BAM artifact for analysis, providing an “Artifact View” or “Timeline View”. These views, along with indexing, filtering, and searching capabilities, allow you to review key details, including:

  • The date and time the executable was run
  • The path of the executable
  • A detailed description of the executable
  • The source of the artifact​1

A Word of Caution

While the BAM key can provide invaluable insights, it’s not a standalone solution for identifying malicious processes. A comprehensive investigation should also include tools and techniques such as antivirus software, network traffic analysis, and examination of other system logs.

Moreover, interacting with the Windows Registry is not without risks. It is imperative to make a backup before making any changes, as errors can have serious consequences for your system.


Equipped with the knowledge of the BAM key’s structure and purpose, you can utilize it as a robust tool for identifying potentially malicious processes running on a system. Whether you’re a system administrator, a digital forensic investigator, or an enthusiast in the field of cybersecurity, the Windows Registry, and specifically the BAM key, is a resource worth exploring.

Remember, the world of cybersecurity is constantly evolving. Stay informed, stay vigilant, and continually learn to navigate it effectively.

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