In the ever-evolving digital landscape, organizations are increasingly facing sophisticated cyber threats that require proactive and dynamic defense measures. One such measure is threat hunting, an active control mechanism that aims to detect adversaries within the enterprise perimeter1.
Why Threat Hunting Matters
As cybercriminal activities continue to rise, causing massive damage to organizations and the public, it has become evident that automated security tools are no longer sufficient to actively detect these sophisticated attackers. Threat hunting presents an active approach to defense, based on a hypothesis that assumes the organization is already breached, and the only evidence of this breach can be gathered through active investigation.
However, effective threat hunting is not solely reliant on technology. It necessitates human skills and expertise to formulate a methodical approach, which technology can’t replicate. The strategy involves adopting the mindset of a threat actor to predict possible attack indicators1.
Understanding Advanced Persistent Threats (APTs)
APTs, usually orchestrated by nation-states or state-sponsored groups, aim to steal confidential information or gain authorized access to an organization’s network. They are characterized by their stealthy nature and their continuous improvement of techniques, tactics, and procedures (TTP) through research and development.
APTs typically follow five common stages:
- Initial Compromise: This stage involves gaining entry through an infected file, exploiting a vulnerability, or using phishing techniques.
- Reconnaissance and Command and Control: This stage is marked by exploring the network, gathering information, and establishing a command and control server.
- Lateral Movement: After obtaining administrative privileges, attackers move laterally within the network, using legitimate tools to propagate and avoid detection.
- Exfiltration: At this stage, the attackers copy valuable data outside of the organization’s network to a location of their choosing.
- Maintaining Persistence: Here, threat actors try to remain on the compromised network as stealthily as possible, altering system configurations to avoid detection1.
A Methodical Approach to Threat Hunting
Effective threat hunting involves a systematic methodology:
- Define an Attack Scenario: Here, threat hunters assume that the organization is already breached and focus on a specific industry-focused threat.
- Formulate Hypothesis: Based on the cyber attack chain, hunters guess the potential techniques, tactics, and procedures the attacker might use and the possible evidence they might have left behind.
- Identify and Gather Evidence: At this stage, hunt teams identify and assemble data sources they can analyze within their hunt.
- Leverage Analytics to Reveal Results: Gathered evidence and data are correlated using human analytical and visualization techniques.
- Report Results: The final step involves presenting the collected evidence, analysis techniques, and conclusions. This information triggers discussions that can lead to incident response, patching uncovered vulnerabilities, and improving the organization’s infrastructure1.
In conclusion, threat hunting is an essential part of a modern cybersecurity strategy. It requires a combination of human intuition and technical expertise to preemptively identify and mitigate threats, reducing the potential damage caused by APTs. As cyber threats continue to evolve, so too must our defenses. Implementing threat hunting practices will ensure your organization stays one step ahead in the ongoing battle against cybercrime.