In the ever-evolving landscape of cyber threats, organizations must remain vigilant in their efforts to defend against initial access attacks, which are often the first step in a chain of events that can lead to devastating data breaches and ransomware attacks. Understanding the tactics used by threat actors and implementing effective defenses is crucial in maintaining a strong security posture.

The Rise of Initial Access Brokers (IABs)

As ransomware-as-a-service (RaaS) attacks continue to make headlines, it’s important to shed light on the less visible entities that enable these attacks: Initial Access Brokers (IABs). IABs play a vital role in the ransomware ecosystem by selling access to compromised networks to RaaS affiliates.

At the top of the RaaS food chain are sophisticated criminal enterprises known as RaaS vendors. These vendors develop and sell ransomware, along with the infrastructure necessary for conducting negotiations and data leaks. Instead of executing the attacks themselves, RaaS vendors sell their ransomware to affiliates who specialize in deploying the malware.

To gain access to corporate networks, many affiliates rely on IABs. These brokers, whether independent or part of a larger organization, are responsible for finding and compromising vulnerable networks. Once they gain access, IABs often sell their stolen access on the dark web, where the price is determined by factors such as the size and type of the compromised company.

Methods Used by IABs

IABs employ various techniques to compromise corporate networks, which can broadly be categorized into three camps: phishing, password guessing, and exploiting vulnerabilities.

1. Phishing

Phishing has long been a favored technique for initial access. By crafting convincing emails and luring employees into divulging their login credentials or opening malicious attachments, IABs can gain a foothold in corporate networks. Phishing attacks accounted for over 60% of social engineering data breaches in 2022, according to Verizon’s Data Breach Investigation Report. Once an IAB obtains an employee’s login credentials, they can potentially access the corporate network through VPNs or use malware dropped onto the recipient’s machine to move laterally within the network.

2. Password Guessing

Another technique employed by IABs is brute force password guessing. By using automated tools, cybercriminals attempt to guess passwords for internet-facing systems like VPNs, RDP, or SSH. Remote Desktop Protocol (RDP) is particularly vulnerable, as it allows remote access to computers. If an IAB successfully guesses the credentials, they can gain unauthorized access to the network.

3. Exploiting Vulnerabilities

IABs also exploit security vulnerabilities in a company’s IT infrastructure to gain access to their network. They scan for IP addresses with open ports and identify services running software with unpatched vulnerabilities. Tools like Shodan, which acts as a search engine for vulnerable servers, assist IABs in quickly identifying potential targets. Exploiting known vulnerabilities, such as Log4Shell or ProxyLogon, allows IABs to gain access to networks that have not applied necessary patches.

Defending Against Initial Access Attacks

Protecting against initial access attacks requires a multi-layered approach that includes employee training, proactive vulnerability management, and continuous monitoring of network activity. Here are some key strategies to consider:

1. Employee Training and Phishing Awareness

Educating employees about the risks of phishing attacks is critical. Regular training sessions can help employees recognize and report suspicious emails. Simulated phishing campaigns can also be conducted to assess the effectiveness of training programs and identify areas for improvement. Additionally, implementing email filtering solutions can help detect and block malicious emails before they reach employees’ inboxes.

2. Strong Password Policies and Multi-Factor Authentication (MFA)

Enforcing strong password policies, such as requiring complex passwords and regular password changes, can significantly reduce the risk of credential compromise. Implementing multi-factor authentication (MFA) adds an extra layer of security by requiring users to provide additional verification, such as a unique code sent to their mobile device, when logging in. This makes it much harder for attackers to gain unauthorized access even if passwords are compromised.

3. Vulnerability Management and Patching

Regularly scanning for vulnerabilities and promptly applying patches is crucial in reducing the attack surface for initial access attacks. Vulnerability management tools can help identify and prioritize vulnerabilities based on their severity. It’s essential to establish a patch management process that ensures timely updates across the network, including operating systems, software applications, and firmware.

4. Network Segmentation and Least Privilege

Implementing network segmentation and applying the principle of least privilege can help contain the impact of a potential breach. By dividing the network into separate segments and restricting user access based on their roles and responsibilities, organizations can limit lateral movement within the network. This approach ensures that even if an attacker gains initial access, they will face significant barriers to accessing critical systems and data.

5. Intrusion Detection and Continuous Monitoring

Deploying intrusion detection systems (IDS) and Security Information and Event Management (SIEM) solutions can provide real-time monitoring and alerting for suspicious activities. These systems analyze network traffic, log files, and system events to identify potential threats. Continuous monitoring of network activity allows for the early detection of indicators of compromise (IOCs) and swift response to potential breaches.

6. Cyber Threat Hunting and Honey Accounts

Proactive cyber threat hunting involves actively searching for signs of compromise within the network. This can be done by analyzing logs and looking for anomalies or indicators of suspicious activity. Creating honey accounts, which are fake accounts with attractive credentials, can help lure attackers and provide early indications of a breach when unauthorized login attempts are made.


Initial access attacks pose a significant threat to organizations of all sizes. Understanding the methods used by IABs and implementing effective defensive measures is essential in protecting against these attacks. By combining employee training, vulnerability management, network segmentation, and continuous monitoring, organizations can significantly reduce the risk of initial access and mitigate the potential impact of a breach. Stay proactive, stay vigilant, and engineer your defenses to withstand the ever-evolving threat landscape.

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